A very lucrative liquid: the emerging trade in human milk as a form of reproductive exploitation and violence against women
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare
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Steele, S., & Hernandez-Salazar, E. (2020). A very lucrative liquid: the emerging trade in human milk as a form of reproductive exploitation and violence against women. International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, 13 (2), 171-183. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHRH-07-2019-0058
In recent decades, extensive work has been done worldwide to promote breastfeeding (Akre, Gribble, & Minchin, 2011). Healthcare professionals routinely emphasise that human milk is the gold standard for infant feeding, while research continues to show the benefits of breastfeeding to both mother and infant. Demand for human milk has therefore expanded, especially in developed settings like the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK), as increasingly diverse families seek perceive the benefits of milk for feeding even where a parent is unavailable or unable to produce it herself (Dutton, 2011). However, markets now exist in human milk not just for infant feeding, but also that market milk as a nutritional or fitness supplement, an alternative medicine or treatment regime, and a clean eat for those shunning dairy and other commercially produced milks (Steele, Foell, Martyn, & Freitag, 2015; Steele, Martyn, & Foell, 2015). Recently, technology has offered new ways for those seeking human milk to find it easily, with websites, social media platforms and companies offering opportunities to buy, share, and sell milk (Geraghty et al., 2013; Keim et al., 2014).
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHRH-07-2019-0058
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/301220
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