Cuttlefish exert self-control in a delay of gratification task.
Proceedings. Biological sciences
The Royal Society
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Schnell, A., Boeckle, M., Rivera, M., Clayton, N., & Hanlon, R. T. (2021). Cuttlefish exert self-control in a delay of gratification task.. Proceedings. Biological sciences, 288 (1946), 20203161. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.3161
The ability to exert self-control varies within and across taxa. Some species can exert self-control for several seconds whereas others, such as large-brained vertebrates, can tolerate delays of up to several minutes. Advanced self-control has been linked to better performance in cognitive tasks and has been hypothesised to evolve in response to specific socio-ecological pressures. These pressures are difficult to uncouple because previously studied species face similar socio-ecological challenges. Here, we investigate self-control and learning performance in cuttlefish, an invertebrate that is thought to have evolved under partially different pressures to previously studied vertebrates. To test self-control, cuttlefish were presented with a delay maintenance task, which measures an individual’s ability to forgo immediate gratification and sustain a delay for a better but delayed reward. Cuttlefish maintained delay durations for up to 50–130 s. To test learning performance, we used a reversal learning task, whereby cuttlefish were required to learn to associate reward with one of two stimuli and then subsequently learn to associate reward with the alternative stimulus. Cuttlefish that delayed gratification for longer had better learning performance. Our results demonstrate that cuttlefish can tolerate delays to obtain food of higher quality comparable to that of some large-brained vertebrates.
Animals, Learning, Reward, Decapodiformes, Pleasure, Self-Control
This work was supported by multiple funding bodies during conception, data collection, and writing of this study. AKS was supported by an Endeavour Research Fellowship funded by the Australian Government (6656–2018), a Grass Fellowship funded by the Grass Foundation, and a Newton International Fellowship funded by the Royal Society (NIF\R1\180962). MR was supported by a Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (Award No. 1659604) funded by the National Science Foundation. RTH was supported partially by the Sholley Foundation. MB and NSC were supported by a European Research Council grant (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement No. 3399933, which was awarded to NSC.
Royal Society (NIF/R1/180962)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.3161
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/316950
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