Characterization of Heterogeneity and Dynamics of Lysis of Single <i>Bacillus subtilis</i> Cells upon Prophage Induction During Spore Germination, Outgrowth, and Vegetative Growth Using Raman Tweezers and Live-Cell Phase-Contrast Microscopy.
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Wu, M., Li, W., Christie, G., Setlow, P., & Li, Y. (2021). Characterization of Heterogeneity and Dynamics of Lysis of Single <i>Bacillus subtilis</i> Cells upon Prophage Induction During Spore Germination, Outgrowth, and Vegetative Growth Using Raman Tweezers and Live-Cell Phase-Contrast Microscopy.. Analytical chemistry, 93 (3), 1443-1450. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c03341
A prophage comprises a bacteriophage genome that has integrated into a host bacterium's DNA, which generally permits the cell to grow and divide normally. However, the prophage can be induced by various stresses, or induction can occur spontaneously. After prophage induction, viral replication and production of endolysins begin until the cell lyses and phage particles are released. However, the heterogeneity of prophage induction and lysis of individual cells in a population and the dynamics of a cell undergoing lysis by prophage induction have not been fully characterized. Here, we used Raman tweezers and live-cell phase-contrast microscopy to characterize the Raman spectral and cell length changes that occur during the lysis of individual Bacillus subtilis cells from spores that carry PBSX prophage during spores' germination, outgrowth, and then vegetative growth. Major findings of this work are as follows: (i) After addition of xylose to trigger prophage induction, the intensities of Raman spectral bands associated with nucleic acids of single cells in induced cultures gradually fell to zero, in contrast to the much smaller changes in protein band intensities and no changes in nucleic acid bands in uninduced cultures; (ii) the nucleic acid band intensities from an individual induced cell exhibited a rapid decrease, following a long lag period; (iii) after the addition of nutrient-rich medium with xylose, single spores underwent a long period (228 ± 41.4 min) for germination, outgrowth, and vegetative growth, followed by a short period of cell burst in 1.5 ± 0.8 min at a cell length of 8.2 ± 5.5 μm; (iv) the latent time (Tlatent) between the addition of xylose and the start of cell burst was heterogeneous in cell populations; however, the period (ΔTburst) from the latent time to the completion of cell lysis was quite small; (v) in a poor medium with l-alanine alone, addition of xylose caused prophage induction following spore germination but with longer Tlatent and ΔTburst times and without cell elongation; (vi) spontaneous prophage induction and lysis of individual cells from spores in a minimal nutrient medium were observed without xylose addition, and cell length prior to cell lysis was ∼4.1 μm, but spontaneous prophage induction was not observed in a rich medium; (vii) in a rich medium, addition of xylose at a time well after spore germination and outgrowth significantly shortened the average Tlatent time. The results of this study provide new insights into the heterogeneity and dynamics of lysis of individual B. subtilis cells derived from spores upon prophage induction.
Bacillus subtilis, Spores, Bacterial, Microscopy, Phase-Contrast, Spectrum Analysis, Raman, Optical Tweezers, Single-Cell Analysis
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External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c03341
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/319264
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