Analysing the Performance of Ammonia Powertrains in the Marine Environment
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Imhoff, T. B., Gkantonas, S., & Mastorakos, E. (2021). Analysing the Performance of Ammonia Powertrains in the Marine Environment. Energies, 14 (21) https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217447
This study develops system-level models of ammonia-fuelled powertrains that reflect the characteristics of four oceangoing vessels to evaluate the efficacy of ammonia as an alternative fuel in the marine environment. Relying on thermodynamics, heat transfer, and chemical engineering, the models adequately capture the behaviour of internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel processing equipment, and exhaust aftertreatment components. The performance of each vessel is evaluated by comparing its maximum range and cargo capacity to a conventional vessel. Results indicate that per unit output power, ammonia-fuelled internal combustion engines are more efficient, require less catalytic material, and have lower auxiliary power requirements than ammonia gas turbines. Most merchant vessels are strong candidates for ammonia fuelling if the operators can overcome capacity losses between 4% and 9%, assuming that the updated vessels retain the same range as a conventional vessel. The study also establishes that naval vessels are less likely to adopt ammonia powertrains without significant redesigns. Ammonia as an alternative fuel in the marine sector is a compelling option if the detailed component design continues to show that the concept is practically feasible. The present data and models can help in such feasibility studies for a range of vessels and propulsion technologies.
ammonia, marine propulsion, shipping, decarbonisation, powertrain
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217447
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/330599