A Review on Equine Influenza from a Human Influenza Perspective.
Newton, J Richard
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Whitlock, F., Murcia, P. R., & Newton, J. R. (2022). A Review on Equine Influenza from a Human Influenza Perspective.. Viruses, 14 https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061312
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a main natural reservoir in wild birds. IAVs are highly contagious, continually evolve, and have a wide host range that includes various mammalian species including horses, pigs, and humans. Furthering our understanding of host-pathogen interactions and cross-species transmissions is therefore essential. This review focuses on what is known regarding equine influenza virus (EIV) virology, pathogenesis, immune responses, clinical aspects, epidemiology (including factors contributing to local, national, and international transmission), surveillance, and preventive measures such as vaccines. We compare EIV and human influenza viruses and discuss parallels that can be drawn between them. We highlight differences in evolutionary rates between EIV and human IAVs, their impact on antigenic drift, and vaccine strain updates. We also describe the approaches used for the control of equine influenza (EI), which originated from those used in the human field, including surveillance networks and virological analysis methods. Finally, as vaccination in both species remains the cornerstone of disease mitigation, vaccine technologies and vaccination strategies against influenza in horses and humans are compared and discussed.
influenza; horses; equine; human; epidemiology; vaccination
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061312
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/338217
Attribution 4.0 International
Licence URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
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