Bottom-up growth of n-type monolayer molecular crystals on polymeric substrate for optoelectronic device applications.
Self-assembly of monolayers of functional molecules on dielectric surfaces is a promising approach for the development of molecular devices proposed in the 1970s. Substrate chemically bonded self-assembled monolayers of semiconducting conjugated molecules exhibit low mobility. And self-assembled monolayer molecular crystals are difficult to scale up and limited to growth on substrates terminated by hydroxyl groups, which makes it difficult to realize sophisticated device functions, particularly for those relying on n-type electron transport, as electrons suffer severe charge trapping on hydroxyl terminated surfaces. Here we report a gravity-assisted, two-dimensional spatial confinement method for bottom-up growth of high-quality n-type single-crystalline monolayers over large, centimeter-sized areas. We demonstrate that by this method, n-type monolayer molecular crystals with high field-effect mobility of 1.24 cm2 V-1 s-1 and band-like transport characteristics can be grown on hydroxyl-free polymer surface. Furthermore, we used these monolayer molecular crystals to realize high-performance crystalline, gate-/light-tunable lateral organic p-n diodes.