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Fine mapping of type 1 diabetes susceptibility loci and evidence for colocalization of causal variants with lymphoid gene enhancers.

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Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna 
Chen, Wei-Min 
Cooper, Nick J 
Quinlan, Aaron R 


Genetic studies of type 1 diabetes (T1D) have identified 50 susceptibility regions, finding major pathways contributing to risk, with some loci shared across immune disorders. To make genetic comparisons across autoimmune disorders as informative as possible, a dense genotyping array, the Immunochip, was developed, from which we identified four new T1D-associated regions (P < 5 × 10(-8)). A comparative analysis with 15 immune diseases showed that T1D is more similar genetically to other autoantibody-positive diseases, significantly most similar to juvenile idiopathic arthritis and significantly least similar to ulcerative colitis, and provided support for three additional new T1D risk loci. Using a Bayesian approach, we defined credible sets for the T1D-associated SNPs. The associated SNPs localized to enhancer sequences active in thymus, T and B cells, and CD34(+) stem cells. Enhancer-promoter interactions can now be analyzed in these cell types to identify which particular genes and regulatory sequences are causal.



Autoantibodies, Autoimmunity, Case-Control Studies, Chromosome Mapping, DNA Mutational Analysis, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Enhancer Elements, Genetic, Female, Genetic Association Studies, Genetic Loci, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Lymphocytes, Male, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

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Nat Genet

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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U01DK062418)
Wellcome Trust (089989/Z/09/Z)
Wellcome Trust (100140/Z/12/Z)
Wellcome Trust (091157/Z/10/B)
This research uses resources provided by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium, a collaborative clinical study sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and JDRF and supported by grant U01 DK062418 from the US National Institutes of Health. Further support was provided by grants from the NIDDK (DK046635 and DK085678) to P.C. and by a joint JDRF and Wellcome Trust grant (WT061858/09115) to the Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory at Cambridge University, which also received support from the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. ImmunoBase receives support from Eli Lilly and Company. C.W. and H.G. are funded by the Wellcome Trust (089989). The Cambridge Institute for Medical Research (CIMR) is in receipt of a Wellcome Trust Strategic Award (100140). We gratefully acknowledge the following groups and individuals who provided biological samples or data for this study. We obtained DNA samples from the British 1958 Birth Cohort collection, funded by the UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust. We acknowledge use of DNA samples from the NIHR Cambridge BioResource. We thank volunteers for their support and participation in the Cambridge BioResource and members of the Cambridge BioResource Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) and Management Committee for their support of our study. We acknowledge the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre for funding. Access to Cambridge BioResource volunteers and to their data and samples are governed by the Cambridge BioResource SAB. Documents describing access arrangements and contact details are available at We thank the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children laboratory in Bristol, UK, and the British 1958 Birth Cohort team, including S. Ring, R. Jones, M. Pembrey, W. McArdle, D. Strachan and P. Burton, for preparing and providing the control DNA samples. This study makes use of data generated by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, funded by Wellcome Trust award 076113; a full list of the investigators who contributed to the generation of the data is available from