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Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenomas: Scoping review on clinical presentation, preoperative localization, and surgical treatment.

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Gowrishankar, Shravan V  ORCID logo
Das, Tilak 
Majcher, Veronika 
Fish, Brian 


Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenomas (IPAs) are a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. They are often difficult to localize preoperatively and intraoperatively, making diagnosis and treatment challenging. Current data on IPAs are sparse and fragmented in the literature. This makes it difficult to compare the effectiveness of different imaging and surgical techniques. To address this issue, this scoping review maps the literature on IPAs, focusing on four domains: clinical presentation, current localization methods, different surgical techniques, and histopathological features. A search of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was conducted, with 19 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The characteristics of IPAs on ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration, CT, MRI, sestamibi-based techniques, and selective venous sampling are summarized. Emerging imaging modalities, including autofluorescence, are introduced. Surgical methods and intraoperative factors that correlate with high success rates for removal are highlighted. This review also identifies gaps in knowledge to guide further research into this area.



imaging techniques, intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma, lobectomy, thyroid and parathyroid surgery, ultrasound, Humans, Parathyroid Neoplasms, Parathyroid Glands, Diagnostic Imaging, Radiopharmaceuticals, Ultrasonography, Adenoma, Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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