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The Discovery and Validation of Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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Couch, George 
Redman, James E 
Wernisch, Lorenz 
Newton, Richard 
Malhotra, Shalini 


The 5-year survival rate of esophageal cancer is less than 10% in developing countries, where more than 90% of these cancers are esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Endoscopic screening is undertaken in high incidence areas. Biomarker analysis could reduce the subjectivity associated with histologic assessment of dysplasia and thus improve diagnostic accuracy. The aims of this study were therefore to identify biomarkers for esophageal squamous dysplasia and carcinoma. A publicly available dataset was used to identify genes with differential expression in ESCC compared with normal esophagus. Each gene was ranked by a support vector machine separation score. Expression profiles were examined, before validation by qPCR and IHC. We found that 800 genes were overexpressed in ESCC compared with normal esophagus (P < 10(-5)). Of the top 50 genes, 33 were expressed in ESCC epithelium and not in normal esophagus epithelium or stroma using the Protein Atlas website. These were taken to qPCR validation, and 20 genes were significantly overexpressed in ESCC compared with normal esophagus (P < 0.05). TNFAIP3 and CHN1 showed differential expression with IHC. TNFAIP3 expression increased gradually through normal esophagus, mild, moderate and severe dysplasia, and SCC (P < 0.0001). CHN1 staining was rarely present in the top third of normal esophagus epithelium and extended progressively towards the surface in mild, moderate, and severe dysplasia, and SCC (P < 0.0001). Two novel promising biomarkers for ESCC were identified, TNFAIP3 and CHN1. CHN1 and TNFAIP3 may improve diagnostic accuracy of screening methods for ESCC. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 558-66. ©2016 AACR.



Biomarkers, Tumor, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Chimerin 1, Esophageal Neoplasms, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Gene Expression Profiling, Humans, Precancerous Conditions, Transcriptome, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha-Induced Protein 3

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Cancer Prevention Research

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American Association for Cancer Research
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12022/2)
MRC (unknown)
TCC (None)
The Addenbrooke's Hospital Human Research Tissue Bank, supported by the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre (5-4690), supported this study. R.C. Fitzgerald received funding from the NIHR (NIHR-RP-R2-12-011) and the Evelyn Trust (11/23). This study was also supported in part by the intramural research program of the NCI (HHSNZ 61201100483P). R.C. Fitzgerald has programmatic funding from the Medical Research Council (4050375780) and a National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Professorship. The Fitzgerald Group also has infrastructure support from the Biomedical Research Centre (812039) and the Experimental Medicine Centre (C507/A15580).