Individual and combined associations of sarcopenia, osteoporosis and obesity with frailty in a multi-ethnic asian older adult population.

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Heng, Matthew Wong Yu 
Chan, Aurora WD 
Man, Ryan EK 
Fenwick, Eva K 
Chew, Samuel TH 

BACKGROUND: We explored the relationships between sarcopenia (SP), osteoporosis (OP), obesity (OB), (alone and in combination) with physical frailty (PF) in a multi-ethnic, population-based study of Asians aged ≥ 60 years. METHODS: Participants were enrolled from the PopulatION HEalth and Eye Disease PRofile in Elderly Singaporeans Study (PIONEER) study. PF was defined using the modified Fried phenotype; SP using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019; OP using bone mineral density scores; and OB using the fat mass index. Modified Poisson regression models investigated the associations between exposures and PF, and the relative excess rates of PF due to interactions (RERI) to determine synergistic or antagonistic interactions. RESULTS: Of the 2643 participants, 54.8% was female; and 49.8%, 25.1%, 25.0% were Chinese, Indians, and Malays, respectively. 25%, 19.0% and 6.7% participants had OB only, SP only, and OP only, respectively. A total of 356 (17.5%), 151 (7.4%) and 97 (4.8%) had osteosarcopenia (OSP), sarcopenic obesity (SOB) and osteo-obesity (OOB), respectively; while 70 (3.5%) had all 3 morbid conditions (osteosarcopenic obesity, OSO). Both SP only and OB only were strongly associated with increased rates of PF (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.95, 3.29; RR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.58, 2.66 respectively); but not OP. Those with OSP, OOB and SOB were also associated with high risks of PF (RR: 2.82, 95% CI: 2.16, 3.68; RR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.69, 3.23; and RR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.95, 3.41, respectively) compared to robust individuals. Critically, individuals with OSO had the highest relative risk of having PF (RR: 3.06, CI: 2.28, 4.11). Only the sarcopenia-obesity interaction was significant, demonstrating negative synergism (antagonism). The concurrent presence of SP and OB was associated with a 100% lower rate of PF compared to the sum of the relatively rates of SP only and OB only. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SP, OB and OP, alone and combined, is substantial in older Asians and their early identification is needed to mitigate the risk of frailty. OB may interact with SP in an antagonistic manner to moderate rates of frailty. Further longitudinal studies are needed to address causality and mechanistic underpinnings our findings.

Frailty, Obesity, Older adults, Osteo-obesity, Osteoporosis, Osteosarcopenia, Osteosarcopenic obesity, Population-based, Sarcopenia, Sarcopenic obesity, Aged, Humans, Female, Sarcopenia, Frailty, Osteoporosis, Bone Density, Obesity
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BMC Geriatr
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
National Medical Research Council (NMRC-CSA-SI #JRNMRR140601)