Thromboembolic Risk in Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Self-Controlled Case Series Analysis of a Nationwide Cohort.


Type
Article
Change log
Authors
Ho, Frederick K 
Man, Kenneth KC 
Church, Colin 
Celis-Morales, Carlos 
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and thromboembolism including myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A self-controlled case-series study was conducted covering the whole of Scotland's general population. The study population comprised individuals with confirmed (positive test) COVID-19 and at least one thromboembolic event between March 2018 and October 2020. Their incidence rates during the risk interval (5 days before to 56 days after the positive test) and the control interval (the remaining periods) were compared intrapersonally. RESULTS: Across Scotland, 1449 individuals tested positive for COVID-19 and experienced a thromboembolic event. The risk of thromboembolism was significantly elevated over the whole risk period but highest in the 7 days following the positive test (incidence rate ratio, 12.01; 95% CI, 9.91 to 14.56) in all included individuals. The association was also present in individuals not originally hospitalized for COVID-19 (incidence rate ratio, 4.07; 95% CI, 2.83 to 5.85). Risk of MI, stroke, PE, and DVT were all significantly higher in the week following a positive test. The risk of PE and DVT was particularly high and remained significantly elevated even 56 days following the test. CONCLUSION: Confirmed COVID-19 infection was associated with early elevations in risk with MI, ischemic stroke, and substantially stronger and prolonged elevations with DVT and PE both in hospital and community settings. Clinicians should consider thromboembolism, especially PE, among people with COVID-19 in the community.

Description
Keywords
Aged, COVID-19, Case-Control Studies, Hospitalization, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Pulmonary Embolism, Risk Factors, Scotland, Thromboembolism
Journal Title
Mayo Clin Proc
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
0025-6196
1942-5546
Volume Title
96
Publisher
Elsevier BV