Is breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma a hazard of breast implant surgery?


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Authors
Fitzal, Florian 
Turner, Suzanne D 
Kenner, Lukas 
Abstract

Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) may occur after reconstructive or aesthetic breast surgery. Worldwide, approximately 1.7 million breast implant surgeries are performed each year. To date, over 500 cases of BIA-ALCL have been reported around the world, with 16 women having died. This review highlights the most important facts surrounding BIA-ALCL. There is no consensus regarding the true incidence rate of BIA-ALCL as it varies between countries, is probably significantly under-reported and is difficult to estimate due to the true number of breast prostheses used largely being unknown. BIA-ALCL develops in the breast mostly as a seroma surrounding the implant, but contained within the fibrous capsule, or more rarely as a solid mass that can become invasive infiltrating the chest wall and muscle, in some instances spreading to adjacent lymph nodes, in these cases having a far worse prognosis. The causation of BIA-ALCL remains to be established, but it has been proposed that chronic infection and/or implant toxins may be involved. What is clear is that complete capsulectomy is required for treatment of BIA-ALCL, which for early-stage disease leads to cure, whereas chemotherapy is needed for advanced-stage disease, whereby improved results have been reported with the use of brentuximab. A worldwide database for BIA-ALCL and implants should be supported by local governments.

Description
Keywords
anaplastic large cell lymphoma, breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma, breast implants, Breast Implantation, Breast Implants, Breast Neoplasms, Female, Humans, Lymph Nodes, Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic, Mastectomy, Risk Factors
Journal Title
Open Biol
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
2046-2441
2046-2441
Volume Title
9
Publisher
The Royal Society
Sponsorship
European Commission Horizon 2020 (H2020) Marie Sk?odowska-Curie actions (675712)
None