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Defects in ER–endosome contacts impact lysosome function in hereditary spastic paraplegia

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Allison, R 
Edgar, JR 
Rizo, T 
Newton, T 


Contacts between endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) promote endosomal tubule fission, but the mechanisms involved and consequences of tubule fission failure are incompletely understood. We found that interaction between the microtubule-severing enzyme spastin and the ESCRT protein IST1 at ER–endosome contacts drives endosomal tubule fission. Failure of fission caused defective sorting of mannose 6-phosphate receptor, with consequently disrupted lysosomal enzyme trafficking and abnormal lysosomal morphology, including in mouse primary neurons and human stem cell–derived neurons. Consistent with a role for ER-mediated endosomal tubule fission in lysosome function, similar lysosomal abnormalities were seen in cellular models lacking the WASH complex component strumpellin or the ER morphogen REEP1. Mutations in spastin, strumpellin, or REEP1 cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), a disease characterized by axonal degeneration. Our results implicate failure of the ER–endosome contact process in axonopathy and suggest that coupling of ER-mediated endosomal tubule fission to lysosome function links different classes of HSP proteins, previously considered functionally distinct, into a unifying pathway for axonal degeneration.



Adult, Animals, Cells, Cultured, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Endosomes, Female, HeLa Cells, Humans, Lysosomes, Male, Mice, Middle Aged, Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary

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Journal of Cell Biology

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Rockefeller University Press
Medical Research Council (MR/M00046X/1)
MRC (1366897)
Wellcome Trust (100140/Z/12/Z)
Wellcome Trust (082381/Z/07/Z)
Wellcome Trust (086598/Z/08/Z)
Wellcome Trust (093026/Z/10/Z)
This work was supported by grants to E. Reid: UK Medical Research Council Project Grant (MR/M00046X/1), Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellowship in Clinical Science (082381), Project Grant from United States Spastic Paraplegia Foundation, Project Grant from Tom Wahlig Stiftung, and Project Grant form UK HSP Family Group. J.R. Edgar is supported by the Wellcome Trust (grant 086598). T. Newton and G. Pearson are supported by the Medical Research Council PhD studentships (G0800117 and MR/K50127X/1). F. Berner was supported by the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at Addenbrooke's Hospital. B. Winner is supported by the Tom Wahlig Advanced Fellowship, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (01GQ113), the Bavarian Ministry of Education and Culture, Sciences and Arts in the framework of the Bavarian Molecular Biosystems Research Network and ForIPS, and the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research (University Hospital of Erlangen, N3 and F3). Cambridge Institute for Medical Research is supported by a Wellcome Trust Strategic Award (100140) and Equipment Grant (093026).