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Biofabricated Palladium Nanoparticle-Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Using the Punica granatum (Pomegranate) Peel Extract: Investigation of Potent In Vivo Hepatoprotective Activity against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Wistar Albino Rats.

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Kanth Kadiyala, Nalinee 
Mandal, Badal Kumar  ORCID logo
Kumar Reddy, L Vinod 
Barnes, Crispin HW 
De Los Santos Valladares, Luis  ORCID logo


Acute acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is a predominant clinical problem, which causes serious liver injury in both humans and experimental animals. This study presents the histological and biochemical factor and antioxidant enzyme level changes induced by an acute acetaminophen overdose in Wistar albino rat livers to elucidate the effective hepatoprotective potential of biofabricated palladium nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (rGO/PdNPs-NC) compared to silymarin. After detailed characterization of the hepatoprotective potential of the synthesized rGO/PdNPs-NC, the rats were divided into eight groups (n = 6): control group (normal saline, 1 mL/kg b.w.), silymarin, Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract, PdNPs, reduced graphene oxide (rGO-PG), and reduced graphene oxide palladium nanocomposites (rGO/PdNPs-NC, low and high doses) for 7 successive days. The acetaminophen (APAP)-treated group was administered a single dose of acetaminophen (2 g/kg b.w.) on the 8th day. The histopathological results showed that the acetaminophen overdose group exhibited massive intrahepatic hemorrhagic necrosis around the centrilobular region with hepatocytes with vacuolization and swollen cytoplasm found in the liver architecture. This hepatopotential was further assessed by various biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, ALB, ALP, LDH, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, and total protein. Also, the antioxidant parameters such as SOD, CAT, MDA, GSH, GRD, and GST were assayed. Rats of groups 7 and 8 showed a significant decrease in SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDH, direct bilirubin, and total bilirubin (p < 0.001), while a significant increase in the final total protein and ALB as compared to group 2 rats (p < 0.001) was observed. The antioxidant parameters exhibited that rats of groups 7 and 8 showed a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the level of SOD, CAT, GSH, GRD, and GST without affecting the MDA as compared to group 2 rats. Also, the hepatoprotective potential of rGO/PdNPs-NC (low and high doses) was comparable to that of the standard reference drug silymarin. The present study reveals that the rGO/PdNPs-NC possesses significant hepatoprotective activity and acts as an effective and promising curative agent against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.



40 Engineering, 4018 Nanotechnology, Digestive Diseases, Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis, Liver Disease

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American Chemical Society (ACS)
Universidad Nacional de Cañete (Unknown)