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Optical nano-woodpiles: large-area metallic photonic crystals and metamaterials.

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Ibbotson, Lindsey A 
Demetriadou, Angela 
Croxall, Stephen 
Hess, Ortwin 
Baumberg, Jeremy J 


Metallic woodpile photonic crystals and metamaterials operating across the visible spectrum are extremely difficult to construct over large areas, because of the intricate three-dimensional nanostructures and sub-50 nm features demanded. Previous routes use electron-beam lithography or direct laser writing but widespread application is restricted by their expense and low throughput. Scalable approaches including soft lithography, colloidal self-assembly, and interference holography, produce structures limited in feature size, material durability, or geometry. By multiply stacking gold nanowire flexible gratings, we demonstrate a scalable high-fidelity approach for fabricating flexible metallic woodpile photonic crystals, with features down to 10 nm produced in bulk and at low cost. Control of stacking sequence, asymmetry, and orientation elicits great control, with visible-wavelength band-gap reflections exceeding 60%, and with strong induced chirality. Such flexible and stretchable architectures can produce metamaterials with refractive index near zero, and are easily tuned across the IR and visible ranges.



Nanophotonics, Nanophotonics and plasmonics, Nanowires

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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/G060649/1)
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/L027151/1)
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/K028510/1)
European Research Council (320503)
European Research Council (291522)
We acknowledge financial support from EPSRC grant EP/G060649/1, EP/I012060/1, EP/L027151/1, ERC grants LINASS 320503 and 3DIMAGE 291522, EU FP7 280478, and the Leverhulme Trust and Rolls-Royce plc.