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Porcine Sapelovirus Uses α2,3-Linked Sialic Acid on GD1a Ganglioside as a Receptor.

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Kim, Deok-Song 
Son, Kyu-Yeol 
Koo, Kyung-Min 
Kim, Ji-Yun 
Alfajaro, Mia Madel 


UNLABELLED: The receptor(s) for porcine sapelovirus (PSV), which causes diarrhea, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis, and reproductive disorders in pigs, remains largely unknown. Given the precedent for other picornaviruses which use terminal sialic acids (SAs) as receptors, we examined the role of SAs in PSV binding and infection. Using a variety of approaches, including treating cells with a carbohydrate-destroying chemical (NaIO4), mono- or oligosaccharides (N-acetylneuraminic acid, galactose, and 6'-sialyllactose), linkage-specific sialidases (neuraminidase and sialidase S), lectins (Maakia amurensislectin andSambucus nigralectin), proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin), and glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors (dl-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol and phospholipase C), we demonstrated that PSV could recognize α2,3-linked SA on glycolipids as a receptor. On the other hand, PSVs had no binding affinity for synthetic histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), suggesting that PSVs could not use HBGAs as receptors. Depletion of cell surface glycolipids followed by reconstitution studies indicated that GD1a ganglioside, but not other gangliosides, could restore PSV binding and infection, further confirming α2,3-linked SA on GD1a as a PSV receptor. Our results could provide significant information on the understanding of the life cycle of sapelovirus and other picornaviruses. For the broader community in the area of pathogens and pathogenesis, these findings and insights could contribute to the development of affordable, useful, and efficient drugs for anti-sapelovirus therapy. IMPORTANCE: The porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is known to cause enteritis, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis, and reproductive disorders in pigs. However, the receptor(s) that the PSV utilizes to enter host cells remains largely unknown. Using a variety of approaches, we showed that α2,3-linked terminal sialic acid (SA) on the cell surface GD1a ganglioside could be used for PSV binding and infection as a receptor. On the other hand, histo-blood group antigens also present in the cell surface carbohydrates could not be utilized as PSV receptors for binding and infection. These findings should contribute to the understanding of the sapelovirus life cycle and to the development of affordable, useful and efficient drugs for anti-sapelovirus therapy.



Animals, Blood Group Antigens, Carbohydrates, Cell Line, Enteroviruses, Porcine, Gangliosides, HeLa Cells, Humans, N-Acetylneuraminic Acid, Receptors, Virus, Swine, Virus Attachment

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J Virol

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American Society for Microbiology
Wellcome Trust (097997/Z/11/Z)
This study was supported by Wellcome Trust (097997/Z/11/Z) and a grant from Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF). This study was also supported by Bio-industry Technology Development Program through the Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (iPET) funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, and Chonnam National University (2013). IG is a Wellcome Senior Fellow supported by the Wellcome Trust (097997/Z/11/Z).