Programming of central and peripheral insulin resistance by low birthweight and postnatal catch-up growth in male mice.
AIMS: Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) followed by accelerated postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine central and peripheral insulin sensitivity in mice that underwent IUGR followed by postnatal catch-up growth and investigate potential molecular mechanisms underpinning their physiology. METHODS: We used a C57BL/6J mouse model of maternal diet-induced IUGR (maternal diet, 8% protein) followed by cross-fostering to a normal nutrition dam (maternal diet, 20% protein) and litter size manipulation to cause accelerated postnatal catch-up growth. We performed intracerebroventricular insulin injection and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp studies to examine the effect of this early nutritional manipulation on central and peripheral insulin resistance. Furthermore, we performed quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting to examine the expression of key insulin-signalling components in discrete regions of the hypothalamus. RESULTS: IUGR followed by accelerated postnatal growth caused impaired glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin resistance. In addition, these 'recuperated' animals were resistant to the anorectic effects of central insulin administration. This central insulin resistance was associated with reduced protein levels of the p110β subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and increased serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Expression of the gene encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B; Ptpn1) was also increased specifically in this region of the hypothalamus. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Mice that undergo IUGR followed by catch-up growth display peripheral and central insulin resistance in adulthood. Recuperated offspring show changes in expression/phosphorylation of components of the insulin signalling pathway in the ARC. These defects may contribute to the resistance to the anorectic effects of central insulin, as well as the impaired glucose homeostasis seen in these animals.
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12012/4)
Wellcome Trust (106026/Z/14/Z)
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12012/5)