Initiation of T cell signaling by CD45 segregation at 'close contacts'.

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Chang, Veronica T 
Fernandes, Ricardo A 
Ganzinger, Kristina A 
Lee, Steven F 
Siebold, Christian 

It has been proposed that the local segregation of kinases and the tyrosine phosphatase CD45 underpins T cell antigen receptor (TCR) triggering, but how such segregation occurs and whether it can initiate signaling is unclear. Using structural and biophysical analysis, we show that the extracellular region of CD45 is rigid and extends beyond the distance spanned by TCR-ligand complexes, implying that sites of TCR-ligand engagement would sterically exclude CD45. We also show that the formation of 'close contacts', new structures characterized by spontaneous CD45 and kinase segregation at the submicron-scale, initiates signaling even when TCR ligands are absent. Our work reveals the structural basis for, and the potent signaling effects of, local CD45 and kinase segregation. TCR ligands have the potential to heighten signaling simply by holding receptors in close contacts.

Crystallography, X-Ray, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Jurkat Cells, Leukocyte Common Antigens, Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck), Microscopy, Electron, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Models, Molecular, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, Signal Transduction, T-Lymphocytes, Time Factors, ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase
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Nat Immunol
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
The Royal Society (uf120277)
Wellcome Trust (090708/Z/09/Z)
The authors thank R.A. Cornall, M.L. Dustin and P.A. van der Merwe for comments on the manuscript and S. Ikemizu for useful discussions about the structure. We also thank W. Lu and T. Walter for technical support with protein expression and crystallization, the staff at Diamond Light Source beamlines I02, I03 and I04-1 (proposal mx10627) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility beamlines ID23EH1 and ID23EH2 for assistance at the synchrotrons, G. Sutton for assistance with MALS experiments, and M. Fritzsche for advice on the calcium analysis. This work was funded by the Wellcome Trust (098274/Z/12/Z to S.J.D.; 090532/Z/09/Z to R.J.C.G.; 090708/Z/09/Z to D.K.), the UK Medical Research Council (G0700232 to A.R.A.), the Royal Society (UF120277 to S.F.L.) and Cancer Research UK (C20724/A14414 to C.S.; C375/A10976 to E.Y.J.). The Oxford Division of Structural Biology is part of the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Core Award Grant Number 090532/Z/09/Z. We acknowledge financial support from Instruct, an ESFRI Landmark Project. The OPIC electron microscopy facility was funded by a Wellcome Trust JIF award (060208/Z/00/Z).