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Broad geographic sampling reveals the shared basis and environmental correlates of seasonal adaptation in Drosophila.

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To advance our understanding of adaptation to temporally varying selection pressures, we identified signatures of seasonal adaptation occurring in parallel among Drosophila melanogaster populations. Specifically, we estimated allele frequencies genome-wide from flies sampled early and late in the growing season from 20 widely dispersed populations. We identified parallel seasonal allele frequency shifts across North America and Europe, demonstrating that seasonal adaptation is a general phenomenon of temperate fly populations. Seasonally fluctuating polymorphisms are enriched in large chromosomal inversions, and we find a broad concordance between seasonal and spatial allele frequency change. The direction of allele frequency change at seasonally variable polymorphisms can be predicted by weather conditions in the weeks prior to sampling, linking the environment and the genomic response to selection. Our results suggest that fluctuating selection is an important evolutionary force affecting patterns of genetic variation in Drosophila.



D. melanogaster, ecology, evolution, evolutionary biology, fluctuating selection, genomics, population genetics, seasonal adaptation, selection, Adaptation, Biological, Animals, Austria, Chromosome Inversion, Drosophila melanogaster, Gene Frequency, Male, Ontario, Polymorphism, Genetic, Seasons, Selection, Genetic, Spain, Ukraine, United States

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eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd
Canada Research Chairs (950-230113)
NIGMS NIH HHS (R01 GM137430, R35 GM118165, F32 GM097837, R01 GM100366, R35 GM119686)
European Research Council (647900)
European Commission (H2020-ERC-2014-CoG-647900)
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (RGPIN-2018-05551)