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Meta-analysis of Genome Wide Association Studies Identifies Genetic Markers of Late Toxicity Following Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer.

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Kerns, Sarah L 
Dorling, Leila 
Fachal, Laura 
Bentzen, Søren 
Pharoah, Paul DP 


Nearly 50% of cancer patients undergo radiotherapy. Late radiotherapy toxicity affects quality-of-life in long-term cancer survivors and risk of side-effects in a minority limits doses prescribed to the majority of patients. Development of a test predicting risk of toxicity could benefit many cancer patients. We aimed to meta-analyze individual level data from four genome-wide association studies from prostate cancer radiotherapy cohorts including 1564 men to identify genetic markers of toxicity. Prospectively assessed two-year toxicity endpoints (urinary frequency, decreased urine stream, rectal bleeding, overall toxicity) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were tested using multivariable regression, adjusting for clinical and patient-related risk factors. A fixed-effects meta-analysis identified two SNPs: rs17599026 on 5q31.2 with urinary frequency (odds ratio [OR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.08-4.69, p-value 4.16×10(-8)) and rs7720298 on 5p15.2 with decreased urine stream (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.90-3.86, p-value=3.21×10(-8)). These SNPs lie within genes that are expressed in tissues adversely affected by pelvic radiotherapy including bladder, kidney, rectum and small intestine. The results show that heterogeneous radiotherapy cohorts can be combined to identify new moderate-penetrance genetic variants associated with radiotherapy toxicity. The work provides a basis for larger collaborative efforts to identify enough variants for a future test involving polygenic risk profiling.



Cancer survivorship, Genome-wide association study, Prostate cancer, Quality of life, Radiation toxicity, Radiogenomics, Aged, Alleles, Cohort Studies, Combined Modality Therapy, Genetic Markers, Genome-Wide Association Study, Genotype, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Staging, Odds Ratio, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Prostatic Neoplasms, Quality of Life, Radiation Tolerance, Radiotherapy, Treatment Outcome

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Elsevier BV
Cancer Research Uk (None)
Cancer Research Uk (None)
Cancer Research Uk (None)
This work was supported by Cancer Research UK (C1094/A11728 to CMLW and NGB for the RAPPER study, C26900/A8740 to GCB, and C8197/A10865 to AMD), the Royal College of Radiologists (C26900/ A8740 to GCB), the National Institute for Health Research (GCB; no grant number), Addenbrooke's Charitable Trust (GCB; no grant number), Institute of Cancer Research (National Institute for Health Research) Biomedical Research Centre (C46/A2131 to DPD and SG), the National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre (NGB; no grant number), UK Medical Research Council (RG70550 to LD), the Joseph Mitchell Trust (AMD; no grant number), the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre (CMLW; no grant number), Cancer Research UK Program grant Section of Radiotherapy (C33589/ A19727 to SLG), the United States National Institutes of Health (1R01CA134444 to BSR and HO, 2P30CA014520-34 to SB, and 1K07CA187546-01A1 to SLK), the American Cancer Society (RSGT-05- 200-01-CCE to BSR), the U.S. Department of Defense (PC074201 to BSR and HO), Mount Sinai Tisch Cancer Institute Developmental Fund Award (BSR; no grant number), the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (FIS PI10/00164 and PI13/02030 to AV and PI13/01136 to AC), Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER 2007–2013 to AV and AC; no grant number), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (FIS PI10/00164 and PI13/ 02030 to AV and PI13/01136 to AC), Xunta de Galicia and the European Social Fund (POS-A/2013/034 to LF), and the Alberta Cancer Board Research Initiative Program (103.0393.71760001404 to MP). AMD receives support from the REQUITE study, which is funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no. 601826. Laboratory infrastructure for the RAPPER study was funded by Cancer Research UK [C8197/A10123] and the Manchester Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre. The RAPPER cohort comprises individuals and data recruited into the RT01 and CHHiP UK radiotherapy trials. The RT01 trial was supported by the UK Medical Research Council. The CHHiP trial (CRUK/06/016) was supported by the Department of Health and Cancer Research UK (C8262/A7253); trial recruitment was facilitated within centers by the National Institute for Health Research Cancer Research Network. DPD and SLG acknowledge NHS funding to the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research.