Serological profile of first SARS-CoV-2 reinfection cases detected within the SIREN study.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the serological profile of first two SARS-CoV-2 confirmed reinfections in the national healthcare worker cohort study SARS-CoV-2 Immunity and Reinfection Evaluation (SIREN) and potentially identify correlates of protection against reinfection. METHODS: In addition to routine testing within the SIREN study, viral culture, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed. Total antibody testing (Anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike) were complemented by receptor binding domain indirect ELISA and neutralising antibody assays. RESULTS: The first two SARS-CoV-2 confirmed reinfections had mild symptomatic illness episodes from which infectious virus was recovered at the time of reinfection. The recovered viruses and their sequences were closely related to viruses circulating locally during the time of reinfection and serology was consistent with reinfection. Prior to reinfection, both cases had ELISA and immunoblot detectable anti-N antibodies, but lacked live virus neutralising antibody. Within days following reinfection, neutralising antibodies became detectable and anti-N and anti-S binding antibodies were boosted. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesise that titres of neutralising antibody can be used as a correlate of protection against reinfection. Further analysis using a case-control design is essential in order to confirm this hypothesis.