Near Infrared Spectroscopy for High-Temporal Resolution Cerebral Physiome Characterization in TBI: A Narrative Review of Techniques, Applications, and Future Directions.
Multimodal monitoring has been gaining traction in the critical care of patients following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Through providing a deeper understanding of the individual patient's comprehensive physiologic state, or "physiome," following injury, these methods hold the promise of improving personalized care and advancing precision medicine. One of the modalities being explored in TBI care is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), given it's non-invasive nature and ability to interrogate microvascular and tissue oxygen metabolism. In this narrative review, we begin by discussing the principles of NIRS technology, including spatially, frequency, and time-resolved variants. Subsequently, the applications of NIRS in various phases of clinical care following TBI are explored. These applications include the pre-hospital, intraoperative, neurocritical care, and outpatient/rehabilitation setting. The utility of NIRS to predict functional outcomes and evaluate dysfunctional cerebrovascular reactivity is also discussed. Finally, future applications and potential advancements in NIRS-based physiologic monitoring of TBI patients are presented, with a description of the potential integration with other omics biomarkers.