Item Open AccessGalina Erdneeva, about the ban on hunting saiga antelopes(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2017-10-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Bembeev, Aleksandr; Korneev, Gennadiy; Bembeev, Aleksandr Item Open AccessIvan Ulyumdzhiev, About hunting(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2017-08-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Korneev, Gennadiy; Churyumov, AntonIvan talks about wild boars and wolves. Wild boars can be found around Lake Chograi near the Caspian Sea as well as in the forests in Gorodovikovskiy rayon. People hunt wild boars with dogs. Wolves are very smart predators and only experienced hunters can hunt them down. Tracking fresh footprints in the snow or circling them are two tested methods of hunting wolves. Item Open AccessDordzhi Nandyshev, About hunting(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2015-11-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Ubushieva, Bamba; Babaev, Andrei; Kovaeva, Bair; Babaev, AndreiDordzhi is a hunter. He, however, does not hunt close to his house. He goes far away with his dogs for the whole day. He usually kills only one animal. Dordzhi says that all animals have their own tricks and ways to hide from hunters. Item Open AccessSanal Bovaev, about dogs and twin calves(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2019-05-04) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Koldaev, Tseren; Sandzhiev, ArturSanal says that Kalmyks always treated dogs well. People do not beat dogs and keep stray ones that came to them by themselves. It is strictly forbidden to kick a pregnant dog or chase it away. If a cow had twins, one calf was donated to the temple. Item Open AccessOlga Budzhalova, about cats and dogs(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2019-04-22) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Korneev, Gennadiy; Churyumov, AntonOlga relays a legend. When god was dividing bread, humans got nothing. The dog howled, complaining that it did not get bread either. After getting a piece, the dog gave it to humans. Hence, monks teach people to be generous to dogs. Cats are regarded by the Kalmyks as ‘Buddha’s dogs’ i.e. sacred animals. Item Open AccessDordzhi Nandyshev, about Kalmyk beliefs connected with the dog(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2019-05-04) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Korneev, Gennadiy; Churyumov, Anton; Sandzhiev, ArturDordzhi talks about Kalmyks’ love for their dogs: My maternal uncle, Jaajan Mandjin Oradyk, was a hunter. Although I also go hunting, I do not collaborate with other hunters. That is why I do not know much about hunting customs. The only thing I do before setting off on a hunting trip is to pray to Tsagan Aav. Kalmyks care for their dogs. My mother used to tell me that after death people get reborn in various worlds. Before being reborn as a human though, everyone has to be born as a dog. Kalmyks showed such a respect to their dogs that new brides were supposed to feed them by putting food on their dresses. After a dog dies, its corpse is left on the steppe with butter and fat so that it has plenty of food in the next life. We have a custom of giving a child’s milk teeth to a dog while uttering the following incantation: ‘Dog, dog, take my bad tooth and give me a good one in return’. Item Open AccessAlena Lidzhieva, About Hunting(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2018-03-31) Terbish, Baasanjav; Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumov, Anton; Dovurkaev, KaruKaru: In the past, what did your men do on the water? Did they fish? Alena: No. We did not have fish. Our men often went hunting. They hunted hares. K: What other animals did they hunt? A: Foxes, hares, corsacs. K: Did you eat fox’s meat? A: No, no one ate it. But we ate hare’s meat. Fox’s meat is considered to be bad, because it is a bad omen. K: Did people go on wolf hunting? A: Yes. Only good hunters went for the wolves. Those who had good and strong dogs. K: How did they hunt wolves? With whips? A: The dogs would catch a wolf. The hunter would hit the wolf with a whip on its head. K: In order to catch a wolf alive, did hunters put a stick into its mouth? A: Maybe that is what hunters did. K: What did the hunters ride? Horses? A: Yes, horses. Good hunters had horses. Only the poor hunted by foot. Such poor hunters often returned home with nothing. Item Open AccessRoman Lyariev, About Wolves(2016-12-20) Gedeeva, Darina; Ubushieva, Bamba; Babaev, Andrei; Babaev, AndreiRoman says that when wolves arrive the number of foxes and rabbits in that place goes down. Wolves are family oriented, territorial animals. Every family or pack is headed by an alpha male and an alpha female. Wolf cubs learn from their parents. Sometimes wolves hunt livestock, including cows and sheep, which is not good, because cubs also learn this too. It is also known that wolves attack bigger livestock. Once in Kalmykia a 6-month old foal was attacked by wolves. Wolves sleep during the day and start hunting in the evening. Roman relays two story that happened to him and his brother Alexandr. Story One. Once a wolf killed a sheep but did not have time to eat it, because it was chased away by a shepherd. Roman and his brother set off to hunt down that wolf, which turned out to be a female. They managed to kill the wolf when it came back to the sheep’s corpse after sunset. Alexandr correctly predicted where the wolf would come from. This enabled the hunters to shoot the wolf from a close position. Story Two. One day in the winter Alexandr went on a hunting trip accompanied by his three dogs. After some time in the field he saw two of his dogs run towards him, being chased by about seven wolves. When the wolves approached, he shot a female one twice that was as close to him as 10 meters. The other wolves retreated. With a third bullet Alexandr wounded a male wolf. The wolves retreated still further and ran away. Roman explains that at that time the wolves were on heat and very dangerous. Alexandr dragged the dead wolf for three hours until he reached his house. Item Open AccessRoman Lyariev, About Rifles(2016-12-20) Gedeeva, Darina; Ubushieva, Bamba; Babaev, Andrei; Babaev, AndreiRoman has been hunting for about 17 years. He shows and explains three of his rifles. The first one is a sport rifle, with a 50-meters range, comfortable to hold, has options to change the speed of shots. He usually uses this rifle when hunting foxes. In the winter it is good to hunt when it is snowing. First, a hunter needs to find a fox trail. Roman himself prefers hunting on foot, for it is more physically challenging and interesting. Sometimes he has to crawl hundreds of meters to approach the game unnoticed. His second rifle has a range of 150 meters. It is a SKS Simonova model produced in 1954. It is the most popular rifle in Russia. The third one is a modern rifle. It is non-automatic and suitable for hunting boars and wolves. Item Open AccessRoman Lyariev, About Knives(2016-12-20) Gedeeva, Darina; Ubushieva, Bamba; Babaev, Andrei; Babaev, AndreiRoman demonstrates and explains some of his hunting knives, including: -a knife made of a soft metal, -a foldable knife made of a hard metal and with a wooden handle, -a small foldable knife used for skinning animals, -a Swiss-style knife with a screwdriver, etc. He also shows diamond knife sharpeners and lanyards which are useful during hunting to dry clothes or to set up a tent. Most of these items have been given to Roman by his friends and relatives as presents. Item Open AccessOleg Mandzhiev, About Kalmyk Dogs(2016-10-10) Churyumova, Elvira; Churyumov, Anton; Churyumova, Elvira; Churyumov, AntonOleg says that the Kalmyk breed of dogs disappeared following the deportation of the Kalmyk people in 1943. This breed was trained to protect people and livestock. It had very good hearing abilities and could understand the situation based on observation of what was or was not going on around it. For example, if cicadas stopped chirping in the evening, the dog would prick up its ears. It also could feel approaching horsemen by feeling seismic changes in the earth. Kalmyk dogs that had white spots on top of each eye were especially valued, for it was believed that such dogs could see even when they were asleep. Oleg himself did not see a Kalmyk dog, but read somewhere that in Mongolia they still have a variety of Kalmyk dogs. In order to revive the Kalmyk breed, dogs have been imported from Mongolia. Oleg also read a story that hell is guarded by two dogs. In this regard, he recalls a story he heard from his mother about how she saw an impersonation of death. One evening, his mother saw a black horseman galloping towards her with his face covered with a black hood. On each side of the horse the man carried a bag from where were coming horrible screams and whining. She thought that this sound could come either from people or dogs. The horseman galloped past her but she did not hear the sound of the hooves. Item Open AccessKonstantin Naktanov, About Hunting(2016-06-08) Gedeeva, Darina; Churyumov, AntonKonstantin’s grandfather hunted wolves and foxes by using traps. Konstantin’s father, in contrast, hunted with a rifle. In his youth Konstantin went with his father on hunting trips. They hunted hares and steppe birds (seagulls, ducks), except for swans. Konstantin recalls that the seagull’s meat smelled of fish. Killed wolves were skinned in the same way as people skinned sheep. The Kalmyks did not use the fur of foxes or ferrets, because (ordinary) people were not supposed to use or wear what was yellow or yellowish in color. Item Open AccessGerel Shakeeva, About Wolves and Saiga Antelopes(2016-09-30) Churyumova, Elvira; Churyumov, Anton; Churyumova, Elvira; Churyumov, AntonGerel tried wolf’s meat before. She describes it as delicious and greasy. Since wolf’s meat has a high insulin content, it is not good to eat it too much. Gerel says that her brother was a shepherd and that he finds wolves smart and vengeful predators. Once her brother and his friends went for a walk in the steppe and found a wolf puppy. Not knowing that sometimes wolves kill their puppies if they are contaminated with human smell, the people patted the puppy and went home. Soon a wolf turned up at Gerel’s brothers place and began to kill sheep. Wolves could be very harmful for shepherds. According to Gerel’s brother, male wolves are loyal to their females. If a male wolf cheats on his partner, he avoids her for 40 days out of a fear that he may be bitten by the angry female. During this period, the male keeps providing the female with meat. Gerel also recalls than in her childhood she saw saiga antelopes. She even fed them with her friends. Gerel grew up in a village where many men were hunters. Her brother, for example, hunted rabbits. Gerel tried saiga’s meat once, but found it dry in terms of taste. Item Open AccessGerel Shakeeva, About Foxes(2016-09-30) Churyumova, Elvira; Churyumov, Anton; Churyumova, Elvira; Churyumov, AntonGerel says that she witnessed how people killed a fox. The fox had a lot of fleas in its fur. In order not to damage the skin, one should know how to shoot a fox. Traditionally, Kalmyks do not wear fox skin. She heard from others that in Kalmykia there is a clan whose totemic animal is the fox. Similarly, in Kalmykia there is a clan called Chonos, which literally means ‘wolves’. Item Open AccessGerel Shakeeva, About Eurasian Squirrels(2016-09-30) Churyumova, Elvira; Churyumov, Anton; Churyumova, Elvira; Churyumov, AntonThe Eurasian squirrel’s meat is used for making soup. These rodents have a thick fat layer. Their fat, however, is not used, although it is known that some Derbets used it in the past. Squirrel hunting is done as follows. Their burrows are filled with water in order to drive them out. When being killed they squeak.