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Excimer formation by steric twisting in carbazole and triphenylamine-based host materials

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Bagnich, SA 
Athanasopoulos, S 
Rudnick, A 
Schroegel, P 
Bauer, I 


This paper presents a detailed spectroscopic investigation of luminescence properties of 4,4′-Bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (CBP) and N,N,N’,N’-tetraphenylbenzidine (TAD) in solutions and neat films. These compounds are compared to their derivatives CDBP and TDAD that contain methyl groups in the 2 and 2’ position of the biphenyl core. We find that whereas steric twisting in CDBP and TDAD leads to a high triplet energy of about 3.0 and 3.1 eV, respectively, these compounds also tend to form triplet excimers in a neat film, in contrast to CBP and TAD. By comparison with N-phenylcarbazole (NPC) and triphenylamine (TPA), on which these compounds are based, as well as with the rigid spiro analogs to CBP and TAD we show that the reduced excimer formation in CBP and TAD can be attributed to a localization of the excitation onto the central biphenyl part of the molecule.



Phosphorescence, OLED, Molecular conformation, Aggregation

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Journal of Physical Chemistry C

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American Chemical Society (ACS)
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/G060738/1)
We acknowledge support from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) through the project ‘Trip-Q’, the German Science Foundation (DFG) through the Research and Training Group GRK 1640 and the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (grant number EP/G060738/1).