Magnetic resonance spectroscopy ex vivo: A short historical review.
Over the last half century, there have been several periods during which magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used ex vivo, for a variety of reasons, on samples such as microorganisms, cells, animal or human tissue, tissue extracts or biological fluids. These studies began in the days before the acronym MRS had been invented, when all such methods were still called nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and have extended to the present day. I will describe the historical development of NMR methods used ex vivo, their influences on the development of MRS in vivo, and their longer-term uses. All the interpretations will be personal, based on what I saw, or discussed with colleagues at the time.